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Saturday, February 28, 2009

Map of the Universe from Earth



Note - People who like this post will also like The Best So Far

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Mind and Evolution

In science, the ideas that don't hold up under experimental scrutiny and logical rigor are "shot down" and I believe that to be rightly so. That, to me, is exactly what evolution does. That is why the mind has evolved as a result of evolution, mainly because it is more efficient to kill an idea that doesn't work than it is to kill a living creature that doesn't work. Also why the mind went a step further and developed the computational methods to simulate models as opposed to building expensive material models. The future of evolution is all in the minds of people and in the tools that the mind has wrought.

Friday, February 20, 2009

Religions of the World



Note - People who like this post will probably also like The Best So Far

My Seven Wonders of the World

(1) Farnsworth's Nuclear Fusor (and later variations) in combination with Von Neuman Probes

(2) Carbon Nanotubes (and the space elevator)

(3) What the Future Will Look Like

(4) Penrose's Philosophy of Reality (with my modifications)

(5) The World Wide Web

(6) The Worldwide Economic Dream

(7) What the Future Will Look Like

Thursday, February 19, 2009

God Arguments You Never Hear From Theists

(1) If the Multiverse is true then all possible pasts and all possible futures are true. Ergo, there is a universe where God exists and a universe where he doesn't.

(2) Gods exist because humankind invented them and believe in them, even if only in the hearts and minds of people.

(3) You can't disprove that nature is one big pantheistic god.

(4) According to Godel's Theorem, the set of all natural elements does not contain all of the elements, for there ought to be a complimentary set of supernatural elements too. God, of course, being one such element.

(5) If God is defined as Good, then you can't deny that Good exists in the world (or what is pleasure?). If Satan is defined as Bad, you can't deny that Bad exists in the world either (or what is pain?). Ergo, there can be a mental model whereby God and Satan exists by virtue of definition alone, exept whereby people feel no pleasure or pain. Perhaps that third state can be defined as Nirvanna.

Saturday, February 14, 2009

Water Treatment Facilities and the Wastes Removed

There are three general types of water treatment plants which can be classified by their sources. Water treatment plants get their water from either surface or groundwater sources. Wastewater treatment plants get their water from sewage and storm drainage collection systems. Each one of these systems has a unique form of water source impurities to treat, unique methods for treating the waters, a unique set of wastes that are generated, and finally they each have a unique method of handling and disposing of their wastes.

In surface water, the sources of impurities come from contamination in un-maintained watersheds, agricultural runoff, industrial discharge into rivers, lake tourists and campers, and boat fuel. If a lake gets loaded with nutrients then there is a risk of a biological algal bloom which, when treated with copper citrate as an algaecide, can cause bacteria to consume the dead algae and thereby deplete the lake of its dissolved oxygen content, or the lake could become stratified during cooler or warmer seasons, which prevents mixing and leads to the depletion of dissolved oxygen as well. This oxygen depletion not only causes the lake to become more acidified, but it can also cause the ferric and manganic ions to become reduced to more a more polar form of ferrous and manganous hydroxides causing them to dissolve in the water, ultimately causing taste and odor problems, water discoloration, and clothes staining. Also, sulfates will be converted to a more polar hydrogen sulfide structure which really smells bad and presents a health hazard. Of course, there are also many different things, large and small, which can get into the surface water reservoirs and that need to be removed from the water prior to distribution.

The water travels through a series of water purifying treatment elements, each of which need to be periodically cleaned when the waste buildup reaches a certain level. Bar screens are used to remove relatively larger things that are bigger than about an eighth of an inch. The stuff that doesn’t make it through the bar screens is then scraped, washed, dried, compacted, and then hauled to a dump. Next, the water it is pumped through a pipe where it is mixed with a chemical coagulant, which also is a contributor to waste, and then the water is stirred or flocculated so that the suspended particles become globbulated and settle out as sludge in the bottom of the clarifier. The sludge that settles on the bottom is periodically pumped out of the bottom of the clarifier, centrifuged or pressed to thicken it, and then shipped by tanker trucks to drying beds or lagoons for disposal.

Groundwater treatment facilities usually have the job of demineralizing or softening waters that have a very high concentration of total dissolved solids. They generally use reverse osmosis, ion exchange resins, de-ionization resins, electrodialysis, micro- and nano-filtration, oxidation/filtration, and/or distillation for purifying the water to different degrees of quality depending on the necessary localized application. All of these softening elements need to be periodically backwashed or regenerated, and so the cleaning cycles for these elements tend to produce high TDS or brine levels that need to be disposed of properly. In some cases it is okay to flush the wastewater down a sanitary sewer for the wastewater plant to handle, but in most other cases the solids need to be pressed dry or centrifuged and then hauled out to a solar lagoon or sludge disposal site where it is dried and sedimentated.

In wastewater treatment facilities, the waste can come from residential facilities, businesses, chemicals which enter in through storm drains, from cesspools and septic tanks, and from chemical additives that are dosed into the water at the facility. Waste is periodically collected from trash racks, grit collectors, sludge settling basins, scum scrapers, secondary clarifier basins, and from filter backwash water. Waste from a wastewater treatment plant is thickened in centrifuges and then it is digested in a heated solids digester in order to eliminate some of the biohazard before disposal or land application. The methane gas from the digester can be stored and used as energy, or it can be burned off, but it is important to combust it because methane is a worse greenhouse gas then carbon dioxide is. Wastes from the trash screens get washed, compacted and then sent off to a landfill.

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Sources:

1) Wastewater Facilities

2) Water Treatment Facilities

3) Montana Ground Water Manual

4) “Water Treatment Plant Operation” volume 1 and 2, Kennith Kerry

People who like this post will probably like these other posts as well

Something about Water/Wastewater Treatment
Water Purification Methods and Applications
Comparison of Hydroligic Systems
Well Drawdown Tutorial
Drilling Equipment

Monday, February 9, 2009

Sunday, February 8, 2009

A few more wise-isms

1) Nobody can predict the future based on marketing alone.

2) Evolution dictates that there will always be competition in the world, and that the competition will always get more sophisticated or will die off.

3) In matters of uncertainty, it is always easy to pass oneself off as an expert but hard to actually be one.

4) There are many more businesses that have died off in the past than are currently in existance today.

5) Ability arises from experience in dealing with competition, the amount and rigorousity of the training recieved, and the proximity to and amount of attention paid to the competition's schemes.

Friday, February 6, 2009

The Better Way

....actually, I could expand upon that. Tax returns should be a mandatory 2 week trek to DC-Casino in Los Vegas where people redeem their taxes in terms of red chips and then they gamble and get their returns in terms of Blue Chips which are thereby redeemable for a tax return. If people fail to make that annual trek to Vegas then that is money that goes into funding Big 3 research and developement into Flying Cars so that the roads and bridges don't need to be repaved or repaired. Mwahahaha.


Wednesday, February 4, 2009

Drilling Equipment

1.0 Overview:

Drilling equipment is used in hydrology, geology, and oil exploration. In hydrology, drilling is mainly used for installing wells into groundwater basins or artesian aquifers.

2.0 Description of Instrument:



In general a drill has a diesel motor or generator which runs a motor or could be manually torqued, a mud coolant and lubricant circulating system or some way of bailing out the hot mud, a continuous or discrete core sampling device, and some kind of auger or drill bit depending on the soil or rock composition that is being drilled through. Here is a picture of the available parts involved with a manual drilling kit for shallow wells up to about 25 ft deep:


There are many different types of drilling equipment such as for use just off the highway, on a boat, in the ocean on oil rig platforms, mobile tractor drills for quick short drilling in many places of the same general area, and of course there are power and hammer drills of many sorts as well.
3.0 Calibration of Instrument:

Calibration of a drill is typically done by doing an impact test on the soil to determine what sort of auger or drill-bit is proper to use for the intended application. Every drill is different, and so every calibration and setup will be different.

4.0 Drilling Process:

Double check to make sure that the lubrication pump is running, that the drill is rigged up in the proper position, that the auger bit is the right one, that the motor or diesel powered engine is switched on. If all of these pass inspection, then proceed with the drilling and core sampling. Make sure to label the coring samples with the proper depth when storing them for later analysis.

5.0 Instrument Maintenance:

The maintenance instructions for each separate drill will be different. However, one might expect to replace the auger or drill core should cracking occur due to too much torque being applied by the motor. The lubrication/coolant circulating pump and the drill rotor engine might need to be periodically checked during the operation to ensure that they are in proper balance and that they are properly greased or oiled.

6.0 Citations/Bibliography:

1. http://www.ekotechnika.cz/pdf/P1-22e.pdf
2. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6882651752800435367&ei
3. Notes from 11/12/2008 WRT 120 class



People who like this post will probably like these other posts as well

Something about Water/Wastewater Treatment
Water Treatment Facilities and the Wastes Removed
Water Purification Methods and Applications
Comparison of Hydroligic Systems
Well Drawdown Tutorial