Drilling equipment is used in hydrology, geology, and oil exploration. In hydrology, drilling is mainly used for installing wells into groundwater basins or artesian aquifers.
2.0 Description of Instrument:
In general a drill has a diesel motor or generator which runs a motor or could be manually torqued, a mud coolant and lubricant circulating system or some way of bailing out the hot mud, a continuous or discrete core sampling device, and some kind of auger or drill bit depending on the soil or rock composition that is being drilled through. Here is a picture of the available parts involved with a manual drilling kit for shallow wells up to about 25 ft deep:
There are many different types of drilling equipment such as for use just off the highway, on a boat, in the ocean on oil rig platforms, mobile tractor drills for quick short drilling in many places of the same general area, and of course there are power and hammer drills of many sorts as well.
3.0 Calibration of Instrument:
Calibration of a drill is typically done by doing an impact test on the soil to determine what sort of auger or drill-bit is proper to use for the intended application. Every drill is different, and so every calibration and setup will be different.
4.0 Drilling Process:
Double check to make sure that the lubrication pump is running, that the drill is rigged up in the proper position, that the auger bit is the right one, that the motor or diesel powered engine is switched on. If all of these pass inspection, then proceed with the drilling and core sampling. Make sure to label the coring samples with the proper depth when storing them for later analysis.
5.0 Instrument Maintenance:
The maintenance instructions for each separate drill will be different. However, one might expect to replace the auger or drill core should cracking occur due to too much torque being applied by the motor. The lubrication/coolant circulating pump and the drill rotor engine might need to be periodically checked during the operation to ensure that they are in proper balance and that they are properly greased or oiled.
3. Notes from 11/12/2008 WRT 120 class
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