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Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Jets


Jet-Rocket Hybrids and Radar Drone

Sunday, November 9, 2008

Water Purification Methods and Applications

De-ionization:

De-ionized water is used in clinical and medical laboratories for diluting important specimens that need to be untainted by dissolved solids, in the semi-conductor industry for cleaning silicone wafers, in the optics industry for cleaning lenses, and it is used in chemical laboratories for cleaning glassware. It is used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, PC water-cooling systems, car washes, window cleaning solution, freshwater/saltwater aquariums, and in fog-fire extinguishing systems.

De-ionization by ion exchange is the process of removing dissolved cations and anions from the water and replacing them with hydrogen and hydroxide ions which combine to form water molecules. First the positively charged cations are removed using the Strongly Acidic Cation Resin (SAC), followed by the removal of the negatively charged anions using a Strongly Basic Anion Resin (SBA). This is done by generating the each ion-exchange resin their respective highly acidic or highly basic solution for 30-60 minutes and then rinsing the excess solution out with feed water. This method works well on brackish waters with Total Dissolved Solids concentrations as high 3000 ppm, and can be followed by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis for even better results. They need to be regenerated whenever the exchange resin has reached exhaustion and no longer has any effect on hard water. They need to be backwashed too, about every 10 or so cycles to remove mudballs.

Note: Water softening by ion exchange uses the same process as deionization, but the resin is generated with sodium or potassium ions from salt instead of with hydrogen ions from strong acids.

Distillation:

Distilled water is used in chemistry and biology laboratories, in lead acid batteries, in automotive cooling radiators, steam irons, household aquariums, and in cigar humidors. In addition, distilled water can be drunk as a bottled beverage or in areas where the water is so salty that it is uneconomical to use other methods of desalination. Finally, distilled water is used in nuclear radiation cooling towers and on nuclear powered reactors on NAVY ships and nuclear submarines.

Distillation is a process where water is boiled and the dissolved solids which boil at a higher temperature are left behind to form a scale on the bottom of the evaporation dish. This method is the most energy inefficient method because water requires a lot of heat in order to boil, but the finished product can be considered completely sterilized from all bacterial, viral, and microorganism life forms. This is the best method for the desalination of extremely salty sea waters or groundwater.

Electro-dialysis:

Electro-dialysis is used for de-ionizing various aqueous solutions, in large scale seawater desalination, small scale drinking water production, pre-demineralization in semi-conductor and chemical industries, cooling towers, food processing plants, agricultural water applications, HVAC applications, and in the purification of glycerin.

Electrodialysis is a method used to remove ions by using a constant voltage potential between two electrodes. The water flows through the center plane while the ions are attracted to the cathode and the anodes. Cations, the positively charged ions, are attracted to the cathode, which is the negative terminal. Anions, being negatively charged, are attracted to the anode which is the positive terminal. There are alternating layers of ion-exchange resins which the ions get trapped by as they are drawn toward their terminals. An added feature that causes the process to reverse (reversal of the flow and the voltage potential on the electrodes) approximately every 10 minutes and then flush with 2 minutes has shown to considerably improve the effective lifetime of the ED-machine by preventing the formation of scale on the semi-permeable membrane. This method of deionization has been shown to work well on waters with a Total Dissolved Solids content of 3000 ppm and can go much higher up to, (maybe 20,000 ppm !?) for special applications.

Reverse Osmosis:

Water purified by reverse osmosis is used in drinking water, desalination, wastewater recycling, salt water aquariums, kidney dialysis machines, hydrogen fuel production, and rainwater recycling.

Reverse osmosis is the process of forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane by applying a high pressure using centrifugal pumps. The water can move through the membrane, but the salinity remains on the concentrated side of the membrane. These RO-filters can be used in series as much as 8 in a row, and can remove about 90% of the TDS. This method is good for waters up to 40,000 ppm Total Dissolved Solids, but the water must be treated first to remove colloidal matter, insoluble precipitates, and chlorine (in some cases) or else the membrane will clog up with debris. This process is made more efficient by the use of a concentrate turbine that is rigged up to the pump, and is considered much lower maintenance than any of the other systems.

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Sources:

(1) Course notes from a wastewater management class

(2) Answers.com

People who like this post will probably like these other posts as well

Something about Water/Wastewater Treatment
Water Treatment Facilities and the Wastes Removed
Comparison of Hydroligic Systems
Well Drawdown Tutorial
Drilling Equipment

Saturday, November 1, 2008

A Logical Reality Vs Christianity

1. Math is a Logical Reality:

Math is not a language, it's a logical reality that exists on its own. A language does not need to exist for the arbitrary line y=3x+6 or for hypercubes to exist. The entity of math exists regaurdless of whether Euclid and Newton developed the symbols to express and define it or not.

Also, there is no need to invoke the existance of God just because math exists. Math exists independent of some kind of creator. Besides, if God designed math, then who designed God? :)

My answer to that question is that the human minds designed God independent of math. In fact, math is a much better system for explaining the universe than God is. For instance, the path of a thunderbolt between clouds or between a cloud and the ground is a probabilistic event that can easily be defined by the bifurcations of electrical current flowing in a chaotic system. It can also be half-mindedly explained as the result of Zeus being angry....the former explanation is more acceptable in academia because it doesn't invoke a larger entity, Zeus, that needs to be explained as well. I think we can all safely agree that Zeus did not throw a lightning bolt because the certainties are so great that the other theory is correct.

2. On Christianity:

I often find that a running theme in Christianity is getting something for nothing or perpetual motion, bad accounting, or bad science.A bush that burns but does not consume itself for fuel is perpetual motion AKA GodJesus starting with 2 fish and 5 loaves of bread and ending up feeding 5000 people with 12 baskets left over is clearly a case of bad accounting....but people believe in this looney tunes miracle stuff they were taught as children (Jesus on a grilled cheese sandwich) which is why there is bad accounting in politics and a general misunderstanding of math and science in public schools. I believe that translates into significant inefficiencies in "free lunch" America, and then people are therefore confused about why simple reality doesn't go their way. Christianity is the problem and not the cure in my opinion.