another paper by J.F. Kenney, click to enlarge):
(2) Here is a reference showing various fuel energy densities by weight and by volume (courtessy of Wikipedia, click to enlarge):
Centia's Process for Biodiesel/Biopetrol and Jet Fuels:
Step 1: Triglyceride + 3 H20 + (heat and pressure) => Free Fatty Acids + Glycerol .... In step 1, they extract the Glycerol species from the mix and utilize for heating.
Step 2: FFA + Catalyst + (heat and pressure) => n-alkane + CO2 .... In step 2, they use a catalytic process called "decarboxylation" to convert these Free Fatty Acids into n-Alkanes. Then they separate by alkane length or viscoscity: C1-C14 => Biodiesel and Biogasoline Reforming Plant; while C15-C17 => step3, then to Aviation Biofuel Reforming Plant for Jet Fuel
Step 3: C15-C17 n-Alkanes => C10-C14 isoalkanes + Aromatics + napthenes + H2
(3) It seems to me a little fishy to me, however, that other current research is being done on developing gasoline from sugar. Such a huge transition of chemical potential (carbohydrates to n-alkanes) seems as though it should be preposterous business to me, I'll bet gasoline from sugar has a negative energy balance when evaluated: Gasoline From Sugar